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Droughts and other variations in the climate make the tree grow slower or faster than normal, which shows up in the widths of the tree rings.These tree ring variations will appear in all trees growing in a certain region, so scientists can match up the growth rings of living and dead trees.In regions outside the tropics, trees grow more quickly during the warm summer months than during the cooler winter.This pattern of growth results in alternating bands of light-colored, low density "early wood" and dark, high density "late wood".For example, layers form within glaciers because there tends to be less snowfall in the summertime, allowing a dark layer of dust to accumulate on top of the winter snow (Figure 11.23).As we learned in the previous lesson, index fossils and superposition are effective methods of determining the relative age of objects.
Each dark band represents a winter; by counting rings it is possible to find the age of the tree (Figure 11.22).
The width of a series of growth rings can give clues to past climates and various disruptions such as forest fires.
The thin, dark part of each ring represents slow autumn and winter growth.
Several other processes result in the accumulation of distinct yearly layers that can be used for dating.
But determining the absolute age of a substance (its age in years) is a much greater challenge.