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The chronological resolution obtained by these relative dating methods is at least equal to the resolution possible with chronometric methods.In the case of the larger firms the mark also has publicity value and shows the buyer that the object was made by a long-established firm with a reputation to uphold; such clear name- marks as Minton, Wedgwood, Royal Crown Derby and Royal Worcester are typical examples.'England':- Inclusion of the word 'England' in marks denotes a date after 1891, although some manufacturers (Thomas Elsmore & Sons for example) added the word slightly before this date. It was William Mc Kinley (the 25th president of the USA) who introduced the highly protectionist Mc Kinley Tariff Act of 1890 - this imposed tariffs on many imports (including pottery) in order to make it easier for the American manufacturers to sell their products.It was a requirement of this Act that all such imports carried the name of the country of manufacture.The Brussels Art Laboratory is considering a collaboration with the ISIB institute to put into service of a new technique af ceramic dating (O. ) it is possible to define, minimally, a four-part subdivision.
The thermoluminescence phenomenon arises from the irradiation of mineral inclusions by the radioactive impurities present in every ceramic paste, from the ejection of electrons due to this external energy supply, from the confinement of these electrons freed from the attraction of the nucleus into traps or deformations of the crystalline lattice, and finally from the return of the trapped electrons into the atoms owing to the external energy contribution resulting from the increase of temperature.
AFRICAN (principally in Mali and Nigeria) make modern forgeries by collecting old ceramic fragments on archaeological sites, by grinding these sherds an by recreating statues with the pulverized earth and an organic or mineral binder To remedy the lack of reliability of the T. dating, the laboratory recommends to submit archaeological terracottas to a surface examination with the help of a binocular microscope. No forger will be able to get round this method since it is based on the estimate of the alpha dose received by the ceramics.
To the collector the mark has greater importance, for not only can he trace the manufacturer of any marked object, but he can also ascertain the approximate date of manufacture and in several cases the exact year of production, particularly in the case of 19th and 20th century wares from the leading firms which employed private dating systems.
With the increasing use of ceramic marks in the 19th century, a large proportion of English pottery and porcelain can be accurately identified and often dated.
The four-part subdivision is based on a Stratigraphic analysis of the presence or absence of seven ceramic wares.
However, experiments with seriational methods suggest that greater resolution may be obtained through the quantitative analysis of attribute frequencies.